alternative treatments for autistic children autism treatments

detoxification for heavy metals and chelation of mercury as a treatment for autism

Complete Bibliography for the Article:

Chelation of Mercury for the Treatment of Autism

by Amy S. Holmes, M.D.



Afonne OJ, et al. Zinc protection of mercury-induced hepatic toxicity in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2000 23(3):305-8.

Agarwal MK. Further characterization of hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase inhibition by zymosan. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1975 10(2):387-90.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Mercury. US Dept. of Health and Human Services. March 1999.

Akiba S, et al. Assay of protein-bound lipoic acid in tissues by a new enzymatic method.Anal Biochem 1998 258(2):299-304.

Alberti A, et al. Sulphation Deficit in "Low Functioning" Autistic Children: A Pilot Study. Biol Psych 1999 46(3):420-4.

Anuradha B, Varalakshmi P. Activities of glucose-metabolizing enzymes in experimental neurotoxic models with lipoate as an alleviator. J Appl Toxicol 1999 19(6):405-9.

Anuradha B, Varalakshmi P. Protective role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid against mercury-induced neural lipid peroxidation. Pharmacol Res 1999 39(1):67-80.

Anusevicius ZJ, et al. Dihydrolipoamide-mediated redox cycling of quinones. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 302(2):420-4.

Aposhian HV, et al. Mobilization of heavy metals by newer, therapeutically useful chelating agents. Toxicology 1995 97(1-3):23-38.

Archer T, et al. Functional changes implicating dopaminergic systems following perinatal treatments. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1992 18(3-4):201-22.

Ariza ME, et al. Lead and mercury mutagenesis: role of H2O2, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase. Environ Mol Mutagen 1998 31(4):352-61.

Aschner M, et al. Mercury neurotoxicity: mechanism of blood-brain barrier transport. Neurosci Behav Rev 1990 14:169-176.

Ashour H, et al. The mechanism of methylmercury toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett 1993 69(1):87-96.

Ashraf W, et al. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1994 53(4):516-23.

Asiedu P, et al. Metabolism of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in lead-poisoned children and normal adults. Environ Health Perspect 1995 103(7-8):734-9.

Autism Research Institute Consensus Conference on the Detoxification of Autistic Children. February 9 — 11, 2001. Dallas, Texas.

Bagenstose LM, et al. Murine mercury-induced autoimmunity: a model of chemically related autoimmunity in humans. Immunol Res 1999 20(10):67-78.

Barregard L, et al. Tissue levels of mercury determined in a deceased worker after occupational exposure. Int Arch Occ Environ Health 1999 72(3):169-73.

Berkson BM. A Conservative Triple Antioxidant Approach to the Treatment of Hepatitis C. Combination of Alpha Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid), Silymarin, and Selenium: Three Case Histories. Med Klin 1999 94 Suppl 3:84-9.

Berlin CM Lead poisoning in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 1997 9(2):173-7

Bernard S, et al. Autism: A Unique Type of Mercury Poisoning. ARC Research. 2000. Available from the Autism Research Institute

Biewenga GP, et al. The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid. Gen Pharmacol 1997 29(3):315-31.

Black J. The puzzle of pink disease. J R Soc Med 1999 92(9):478-81.

Bondy SC, et al. The effects of organic and inorganic lead and mercury on neurotransmitter high-affinity transport and release mechanisms. Environ Res 1979 19(1):102-11

Bondy SC, McKee M. Disruption of the potential across the synaptosomal plasma membrane and mitochondria by neurotoxic agents. Toxicol Lett 1991 58(1):13-21.

Bonomi F, et al. Molecular aspects of the removal of ferritin-bound iron by DL dihydrolipoate. Biochim Biophys Acta 1989 994(2):180-6.

Bonomi F, Pagani S. Removal of ferritin-bound iron by DL-dihydrolipoate and DL-dihydrolipoamide. Eur J Biochem 1986 155(2):295-300.

Bonomi F, Pagani S. Uptake of iron by apoferritin from a ferric dihydrolipoate complex. Eur J Biochem 1991 199(1):181-6.

Bowden CA, Krenzelok EP. Clinical applications of commonly used contemporary antidotes. A US perspective. Drug Saf 1997 16(1):9-47.

Buchancova J, et al. Content of the selected trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in blood, urine and hair of blood donors without occupational exposure to these metals. Cent Eur J Public Health 1994 2(2):82-7.

Budtz-Jorgensen E,et al. Benchmark dose calculations of methylmercury-associated neurobehavioural deficits. Toxicol Lett 2000 112-113:193-9.

Busselberg D. Calcium channels as target sites of heavy metals. Toxicol Lett 1995 82-83:255-61.

Bustamante J, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease. Free Radic Biol Med 1998 24(6):1023-39.

Capobianco L, et al. The mitochondrial oxoglutarate carrier: sulfhydryl reagents bind to cysteine-184, and this interaction is enhanced by substrate binding. Biochemistry 1996 35(27):8974-80.

Cassidy SL, et al. Lipid solubility of a series of drugs and its relevance to fatal poisoning. J Pharm Pharmacol 1988 40:130-2.

Cavalleri A, Gobba F. Reversible color vision loss in occupational exposure to metallic mercury. Environ Res 1998 77(2):173-7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Thimerosal in Vaccines: A Joint Statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service. MMWR 1999 48:563-5.

Chisolm JJ. Safety and efficacy of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in children with elevated blood lead concentrations. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2000 38(4):365-75.

Chlopicka J, et al. Use of pattern recognition methods in the interpretation of heavy metals (cadmium) in children's scalp hair. Analyst 1995 120(3):943-5.

Clarkson TW. Mercury: major issues in environmental health. Environ Health Perspect 1992 100:31-8.

Clarkson TW. Methylmercury poisoning: long-term clinical, radiological, toxicological and pathological studies of an affected family. Ann Neurol 1994 35(6):680-8.

Clarkson TW. Molecular and ionic mimicry of toxic metals. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1993 32:545-71.

Clarkson TW. The toxicology of mercury. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1997 34(3):369-403.

Clewell HJ, et al. Evaluation of the uncertainty in an oral reference dose for methylmercury due to interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics. Risk Anal 1999 19(4):547-58.

Cline HT, et al. Low lead levels stunt neuronal growth in a reversible manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1996 93(18):9915-20.

Cox C, et al. Prenatal and postnatal methylmercury exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. JAMA 1999 282(14):1333-4

Cramer H, et al. Monoamine metabolites and cyclic nucleotides in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bismuth or mercury poisoning. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 1978 226(3):173-81.

Crump KS, et al. Benchmark concentrations for methylmercury obtained from the Seychelles Child Development Study. Environ Health Perspect 2000 108(3):257-63.

Cuomo, et al. Behavioral and neurochemical changes in offspring of rats exposed to methyl mercury during gestation. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 1984 6(3):249-54.

Dantas DC, et al.. Immunoglobulin E and autoantibodies in mercury-exposed workers. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1997 19(3):383-92.

de la Torre A, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) as protective agents against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 1998 63(1):1-10.

Deneke SM. Thiol-based antioxidants. Curr Top Cell Regul 2000 36:151-80.

Dill K, et al. Structure and dynamics of a lipoic acid-arsenical adduct. Chem Res Toxicol 1989 2(3):181-5.

Dimpfel W. Effect of Thioctic Acid on Pyramidal Cell Responses in the Rat Hippocampus in Vitro. Eur J Med Res 1996 1(11):523-7.

Domanska-Janik K, et al. Effect of mercury on rabbit myelin CNP-ase in vitro. Neurotoxicology 1987 8(1):23-32.

Domingo JL, et al.Effects of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate on arsenite-induced maternal and developmental toxicity in mice. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1995 89(3):389-400.

Domingo JL. Prevention by chelating agents of metal-induced developmental toxicity. Reprod Toxicol 1995 9(2):105-13.

Dovinova I. Alpha-lipoic acid--a natural disulfide cofactor and antioxidant with anticarcinogenic effects. Ceska Slov Farm 1996 45(5):237-41.

Drasch G, et al. Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr 1994 153:607-10.

Drasch G, et al. Mercury in human colostrum and early breast milk. Its dependence on dental amalgam and other factors. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1998 12(1):23-7.

Drexler H, et al. The mercury concentration in breast milk resulting from amalgam fillings and dietary habits. Environ Res 1998 77(2):124-9.

Echeverria D, et al. Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hg(o): new distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden. FASEB J 1998 12(11):971-80.

Edelson SB, et al. Autism: xenobiotic influences. Tox Indus Health. 1998 14(4):553-563.

Ekstrand J, et al. Toxicological aspects on the release and systemic uptake of mercury from dental amalgam. Eur J Oral Sci 1998 106:678-86.

El-Fawal HA, et al. Neuroimmunotoxicology: humoral assessment of neurotoxicity and autoimmune mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect 1999 107 Suppl 5:767-75.

Ellingsen D, et al. Urinary mercury excretion in chloralkali workers after the cessation of exposure. Scand J Work Environ Health 1993 19:334-41.

Ellingsen DG, et al. An immunological study of chloralkali workers previously exposed to mercury vapour. APMIS 1994 102(3):170-6.

Ellis KJ. Mercury contamination during pH measurement and its effect on creatine kinase activity. Anal Biochem 1978 91(1):224-9.

Elsenhans B, et al. Metal-metal interactions among dietary toxic and essential trace metals in the rat. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 1987 14(3):275-87.

Ely JT, et al. Urine mercury in micromercurialism: bimodal distribution and diagnostic implications. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1999 63(5):553-9.

Eshchenko NK, et al. Effect of succimer on the intensity of tricarboxylic acid dehydrogenase reactions in the brain of rats poisoned with mercuric chloride. Nerv Sist 1978 18:59-67

Eto K, et al. A fetal type of Minamata disease. An autopsy case report with special reference to the nervous system. Mol Chem Neuropathol 1992 16(1-2):171-86.

Eto K, et al. Differential diagnosis between organic and inorganic mercury poisoning in human cases--the pathologic point of view. Toxicol Pathol 1999 27(6):664-71.

Evans K, et al. Biokinetic behavior of technetium-99m-DMSA in children. J Nucl Med 1996 37(8):1331-5.

Ewan KB, Pamphlett R. Increased inorganic mercury in spinal motor neurons following chelating agents. Neurotoxicology 1996 17(2):343-9.

Ewers U, et al. Effects of lead, cadmium and mercury on brain adenylate cyclase. Toxicology 16:227-37.

Eybl V, et al. Effect of chelators, monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate and N-(4-methylbenzyl)-4-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucamine-N-carbodit hioate on cadmium and essential element levels in mice. Analyst 1995 120(3):855-7.

Fagan DG, et al. Organ mercury levels in infants with omphaloceles treated with organic mercurial antiseptic. Arch Dis Child 1977 52:962-4.

Fang X, et al. Comparison of rac- and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acids for chelation of mercury and cadmium using chemical speciation models. Chem Res Toxicol 1996 9(1):284-90.

Fang X, et al. Stereoisomeric selectivity of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acids in chelation therapy for lead poisoning. Chem Res Toxicol 1995 8(4):525-36.

Faro LR, et al. Effects of methyl mercury on the in vivo release of dopamine and its acidic metabolites DOPAC and HVA from striatum of rats. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 1997 38(2):95-8.

Faro LR, et al. Intrastriatal administration of methylmercury increases in vivo dopamine release. Neurochem Res 2000 25(2):225-9.

Ferracane J, et al. Vaporization of Hg from Hg-in amalgams during setting and after abrasion. Dent Mater 1999 15(3):191-5.

Fischer AB, et al. Testing of chelating agents and vitamins against lead toxicity using mammalian cell cultures. Analyst 1998 123(1):55-8.

Fonnum F, Lock EA. Cerebellum as a target for toxic substances. Toxicol Lett 2000 112-113:9-16.

Foo SC, et al. Metals in hair as biological indices for exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993 65(1 Suppl):S83-6.

Forman J, et al. A Cluster of Pediatric Metallic Mercury Exposure Cases Treated with meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA). Environ Health Perspect 2000 108(6):575-577.

Fowler BA. General subcellular effects of lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 1978 22:37-41.

Fox JH, et al. Comparative effects of organic and inorganic mercury on brain slice respiration and metabolism. J Neurochem 1975 24(4):757-62

Fredrickson A, et al. Prenatal coexposure to metallic mercury vapor and methylmercury produce interactive behavioral changes in adult rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1996 19(2):129-34.

Frenkel GD, et al. Inhibition of mitochondrial nucleic acid synthesis by methyl mercury. Biochem Pharmacol 1983 32(8):1454-6.

Fung YK, et al.. Brain mercury in neurodegenerative disorders. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1997 35(1):49-54.

Gerstner HB, et al. Clinical toxicology of mercury. J Tox Environ Health 1977 2:491-526.

Gleiter CH, et al. Influence of food intake on the bioavailability of thioctic acid enantiomers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996 50(6):513-4.

Golse B, et al. Alterations in two enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in developmental infantile psychosis. Revue Neurol (Paris) 1978 134(11):699-705.

Gong Z, Evans HL. Effect of chelation with meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) before and after the appearance of lead-induced neurotoxicity in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997 144(2):205-14.

Goodyer PR, Lancaster GA. Inherited lactic acidosis: correction of the defect in cultured fibroblasts. Pediatr Res 1984 18(11):1144-8.

Gorrie MJ, et al. Exogenous type-1 cytokines modulate mercury-induced hyper-IgE in the rat. Clin Exp Immunol 2000 121(1):17-22.

Goyer RA, et al. Role of chelating agents for prevention, intervention, and treatment of exposures to toxic metals. Environ Health Perspect 1995 103(11):1048-52

Goyer RA. Toxic and essential metal interactions. Annu Rev Nutr 1997 17:37-50.

Grandjean P, et al. Cognitive performance of children prenatally exposed to "safe" levels of methylmercury. Environ Res 1998 77(2):165-72.

Gregus Z, et al. Effect of Lipoic Acid on Biliary Excretion of Glutathione and Metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1992 114(1):88-96.

Grunert R. The effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on heavy metal intoxication in mice and dogs. Arch Biochem Biophys 1960 86:190-195.

Gupta S, et al. Brief report: dysregulated immune system in children with autism: beneficial effects of intravenous immune globulin on autistic characteristics. J Autism Devel Dis 1996 26(4):439-52.

Gupta S, et al. Th1- and Th2-like cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in autism. J Neuroimmunol 1998 85(1):106-9.

Gurer H, et al. Antioxidant role of alpha-lipoic acid in lead toxicity. Free Radic Biol Med 1999 27(1-2):75-81.

Halsey NA. Limiting infant exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and other sources of mercury. JAMA 1999 282(18):1763-6.

Harada M, et al. The present mercury contents of scalp hair and clinical symptoms in inhabitants of the Minamata area. Environ Res 1998 77(2):160-4.

Hatch RC, et al. Use of thiols and thiosulfate for treatment of experimentally induced acute arsenite toxicosis in cattle. Am J Vet Res 1978 39(9):1411-4.

Horng CJ, et al. Determination of urinary arsenic, mercury, and selenium in steel production workers. Biol Trace Elem Res 1999 70(1):29-40.

Hrdina PD, et al. Effects of chronic exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury of brain biogenic amines in the rat. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976 15(3):483-93.

Hu H, et al. Thiol compounds inhibit mercury-induced immunological and immunopathological alterations in susceptible mice. Clin Exp Immunol 1997 107(1):68-75.

Hultberg B, et al. Alterations of thiol metabolism in human cell lines induced by low amounts of copper, mercury or cadmium ions. Toxicology 1998 126(3):203-12.

Hultman P, Nielsen JB. The effect of toxicokinetics on murine mercury-induced autoimmunity. Environ Res 1998 77(2):141-8.

Hussain S, et al. Accumulation of mercury and its effect on antioxidant enzymes in brain, liver, and kidneys of mice. J Environ Health B 1999 34(4):645-60.

Iida Y. Studies of oxidative and phosphorylative systems in mitochondria. II. In vitro studies of the effects of various organic mercury compounds and heavy metals on rat-liver mitochondria. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 1978 33(2):417-25.

InSug O, et al. Mercuric compounds inhibit human monocyte function by inducing apoptosis: evidence for formation of reactive oxygen species, development of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition and loss of reductive reserve. Toxicology 1997 124(3):211-24.

Jones SB, et al. Evaluation of dithiol chelating agents as potential adjuvants for anti-IL-2 receptor lead or bismuth alpha radioimmunotherapy. Nucl Med Biol 1996 23(2):105-13.

Kabuto M. Chronic effects of methylmercury on the urinary excretion of catecholamines and their responses to hypoglycemic stress. Arch Toxicol 1991 65(2):164-7.

Kaliman PA, et al. Metabolism of heme and hemoproteins in rat liver upon administration of mercuric chloride. WMJ 1999 71(6):81-5.

Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child 1943 2:217-50.

Kawabata T, et al. Reaction of (R,S)-dihydrolipoic acid and homologs with iron. Methods Enzymol 1995 251:325-32

Kim CY, et al. Comparison of neurobehavioral changes in three inbred strains of mice prenatally exposed to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2000 22(3):397-403.

Kimata H, et al. Selective enhancement of human IgE production in vitro by synergy of pokeweed mitogen and mercuric chloride. Clin Exp Immunol 1983 53(1):183-91.

Kono DH, et al. The prototypic Th2 autoimmunity induced by mercury is dependent on IFN-gamma and not Th1/Th2 imbalance. J Immunol 1998 161(1):234-40.

Kostial K, et al. Combined oral treatment with racemic and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for removal of mercury in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol 1997 81(5):242-4.

Kostial K, et al. Dose-related efficiency of mono-n-hexyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate in decreasing 203Hg retention in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol 1995 77(1):79-80

Kostial K, et al. Monoisoamyl and mono-n-hexyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate in mobilizing 203Hg retention in relation to age of rats and route of administration. J Appl Toxicol 1995 15(3):201-6.

Kostial K, et al. Prolonged oral treatment with two monoesters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for depleting inorganic mercury retention in suckling rats. Pharmacol Toxicol 1995 77(3):216-8.

Kostial K, et al. Racemic-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for inorganic mercury mobilization in rats. J Appl Toxicol 1997 17(1):71-4.

Kosuda LL, et al. Effects of HgCl2 on the expression of autoimmune responses and disease in diabetes-prone (DP) BB rats. Autoimmunity 1997 26(3):173-87.

Kotsopoulos S, et al. Histidinemia and infantile autism. J Aut Devel Dis 1979 9:55-60.

Kozlov AV, et al. Dihydrolipoic acid maintains ubiquinone in the antioxidant active form by two-electron reduction of ubiquinone and one-electron reduction of ubisemiquinone. Arch Biochem Biophys 1999 363(1):148-54.

Kuhnert P, et al. Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood and placental tissue. Am J Obstet and Gyn 1981 139:209-12.

Kunte WD. Maternal and cord blood mercury background levels: longitudinal surveillance. Am J Obstet and Gyn 1982 143(4):440-3.

Lai JC, et al. Comparison of the inhibitory effects of mercuric chloride on cytosolic and mitochondrial hexokinase activities in rat brain, kidney and spleen. Comp Biochem Physiol C 1984 78(1):81-7.

Lakshmana MK, et al. Mercuric chloride-induced alterations of levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine esterase activity in different regions of rat brain during postnatal development. Arch Toxicol 1993 67(6):422-7.

Langan, Fan, Hoos. The use of mercury in dentistry: a critical review of the literature. JADA 1987 Vol 115.

Langford N, Ferner R. Toxicity of mercury. J Hum Hypertens 1999 13(10):651-6.

Lee MJ, et al. Action of fluorescein mercuric acetate upon mitochondrial energized processes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1969 36(6):937-46.

Lekouch N, et al. Trace elements in children's hair, as related exposure in wastewater spreading field of Marrakesh (Morocco). Sci Total Environ 1999 243-244:323-8.

Leskova GE. Protective effect of lipoic acid amide in experimental mercurialism. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1979 Jun(6):27-30.

Lifshitz M, et al. The effect of 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of lead poisoning in adults. Ann Med 1997 29(1):83-5.

Lindstrom H, et al. Effects of long-term treatment with methyl mercury on the developing rat brain. Environ Res 1991 56(2):158-69.

Lodge JK, et al. Thiol chelation of Cu2+ by dihydrolipoic acid prevents human low density lipoprotein peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 1998 25(3):287-97.

Lorscheider FL, et al. Mercury exposure from silver tooth fillings: emerging evidence questions a paradigm. FASEB J 1995 9:504-8

Lutz E, et al. Concentrations of mercury in brain and kidney of fetuses and infants. J Trace El Med Biol 1996 10:61-7.

Magnaval R, et al. Methyl mercury effect on rat liver mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Experientia 1975 31(4):406-7.

Magos L, et al. The Comparative Toxicology of Ethyl- and Methylmercury. Arch Toxicol 1985 57(4):260-7.

Magos L. Physiology and toxicology of mercury. Met Ions Biol Syst 1997 34:321-70.

Manzo L, et al. Biochemical markers of neurotoxicity. A review of mechanistic studies and applications. Hum Exp Toxicol 1996 Mar;15 Suppl 1:S20-35

Marcusson JA, et al. Serotonin production in lymphocytes and mercury intolerance. Toxicol Vitr 2000 14(2):133-7.

Markovich D, et al. Heavy metals mercury, cadmium, and chromium inhibit the activity of the mammalian liver and kidney sulfate transporter sat-1. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1999 154(2):181-7.

Matsugo S, et al. Elucidation of antioxidant activity of alpha-lipoic acid toward hydroxyl radical. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995 208(1):161-7.

Mayes MD. Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases. Environ Health Perspect 1999 107 Suppl 5:743-8.

Metheson DS, et al. Mercury toxicity (acrodynia) induced by long-term injection of gammaglobulin. J Pediatr 1980 97(1):153-5.

Miller JL. Elimination of thimerosal from vaccines set as goal. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999 56(16):1589, 1593.

Mondal MS, et al. The inhibition of bovine xanthine oxidase activity by Hg2+ and other metal ions. J Inorg Biochem 1996 62(4):271-9.

Monnet-Tschudi F. Induction of apoptosis by mercury compounds depends on maturation and is not associated with microglial activation. J Neurosci Res 1998 53(3):361-7.

More evidence of mercury effects in children. Environ Health Perspect 1999 107(11):A554-5.

Moszczynski P. Mercury compounds and the immune system: a review. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 1997 10(3):247-58

Muller L, Menzel H. Studies on the efficacy of lipoate and dihydrolipoate in the alteration of cadmium2+ toxicity in isolated hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1990 1052(3):386-91.

Muller L. Protective effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on cadmium-induced deterioration of rat hepatocytes. Toxicology 1989 58(2):175-85.

Murphy ME, et al. Protection by glutathione and other thiol compounds against the loss of protein thiols and tocopherol homologs during microsomal lipid peroxidation.

Eur J Biochem 1992 210(1):139-46.

Myers GJ, Davidson PW. Does methylmercury have a role in causing developmental disabilities in children? Environ Health Perspect 2000 108 Suppl 3:413-420.

Newland MC, Reile PA. Blood and brain mercury levels after chronic gestational exposure to methylmercury in rats. Toxicol Sci 1999 50(1):106-16.

Nicholson JK, et al. Proton NMR spectra of urine as indicators of renal damage. Mercury-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Mol Pharmacol 1985 27(6):644-51.

Nielsen JB, et al. Experimental Studies on Genetically Determined Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Autoimmune Disease. Renal Failure 1999 21(3,4):343-8.

Nierenberg DW, et al. Delayed cerebellar disease and death after accidental exposure to dimethylmercury. N Engl J Med 1998 338(23):1672-6.

Nilsson L, Ronge E. Lipoamidase and biotinidase deficiency: evidence that lipoamidase and biotinidase are the same enzyme in human serum. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem1992 30(3):119-26.

Nishio H, et al. Effects of thimerosal, an organic sulfhydryl modifying agent, on serotonin transport activity into rabbit blood platelets. Neurochem Int 1996 29(4):391-6.

Nordberg M, Nordberg GF. Toxicological aspects of metallothionein. Cell Mol Biol 2000 46(2):451-63

Nordenhall K, et al. Cross-fostering study of methyl mercury retention, demethylation and excretion in the neonatal hamster. Pharmacol Toxicol 1998 82(3):132-6.

Nowak B, et al. Relationship of lead and cadmium to essential elements in hair, teeth, and nails of environmentally exposed people. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2000 46(3):265-74.

Nowak B, Kozlowski H. Heavy metals in human hair and teeth: the correlation with metal concentration in the environment. Biol Trace Elem Res 1998 62(3):213-28.

O'Flaherty EJ. Physiologically based models of metal kinetics. Crit Rev Toxicol 1998 28(3):271-317

Oskarsson A, et al. Risk assessment in relation to neonatal metal exposure. Analyst 1998 123(1):19-23.

Ou P, et al. Thioctic (lipoic) acid: a therapeutic metal-chelating antioxidant? Biochem Pharmacol 1995 50(1):123-6.

Ozuah PO. Mercury poisoning. Curr Probl Pediatr 2000 30(3):91-9.

Packer L, et al. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 1997 22(1-2):359-78.

Packer L. Alpha-lipoic acid: a metabolic antioxidant which regulates NF-kappa B signal transduction and protects against oxidative injury. Drug Metab Rev 1998 30(2):245-75.

Patel MS, Hong YS. Lipoic acid as an antioxidant. The role of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Methods Mol Biol 1998;108:337-46.

Pathak SK, Bhowmik MK. The chronic toxicity of inorganic mercury in goats: clinical signs, toxicopathological changes and residual concentrations. Vet Res Commun 1998 22(2):131-8.

Peinado J, et al. Hepatic lipoate uptake. Arch Biochem Biophys 1989 273(2):389- 95.

Pelletier L, et al. Role of CD8+ T cells in mercury-induced autoimmunity or immunosuppression in the rat. Scand J Immunol 1990 31(1):65-74.

Pelletier L. Autoreactive T cells in mercury-induced autoimmunity. J Immunology 1998 40(3):750-4.

Pfab R, et al. Clinical course of severe poisoning with thiomersal. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1996 34(4):453-60.

Prouvost-Danon A, et al. Induction of IgE synthesis and potentiation of anti-ovalbumin IgE antibody response by HgCl2 in the rat. J Immunol 1981 126(2):699-792.

Puschel G, et al. Isolation and characterization of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from human placenta. Eur J Biochem 1982 126(2):359-65.

Queiroz ML, et al. Abnormal antioxidant system in erythrocytes of mercury-exposed workers. Hum Exp Toxicol 1998 17(4):225-30.

Radabaugh TR, et al. Enzymatic reduction of arsenic compounds in mammalian systems: reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase. Chem Res Toxicol 2000 13(1):26-30.

Rael LT, et al. The effects of sulfur, thiol, and thiol inhibitor compounds on arsine-induced toxicity in the human erythrocyte membrane. Toxicol Sci 2000 55(2):468-77.

Rana SV, et al. Lipids in the liver and kidney of rats, fed various heavy metals. Acta Anat 1980 108(3):402-12.

Recommendations regarding the use of vaccines that contain thimerosal as a preservative. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999 48(43):996-8.

Rice D, et al. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: Evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health Perspect 2000 108 Suppl 3:511-533.

Risher JF, et al. Summary report for the expert panel review of the toxicological profile for mercury. Toxicol Ind Health 1999 15(5):483-516.

Risher JF, et al. Updated toxicological profile for mercury. Toxicol Ind Health 1999 15(5):480-2.

Rodriguez-Pombo P, et al. Biotin transport in primary culture of astrocytes: effect of biotin deficiency. J Neurochem 1992 58(4):1460-3.

Roels H, et al. Urinary excretion of mercury after occupational exposure to mercury vapor and influence of the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Brit J Ind Med 1991 48:247-53.

Rossi AD, et al. Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury Alters Locomotor Activity of Male but not Female Rats. Exp Brain Res 1997 117(3):428-36.

Rossi F, et al. Beneficial effect of human therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) in mercuric-chloride-induced autoimmune disease of Brown-Norway rats. Clin Exp Immunol 1991 84(1):129-33.

Roy S, Packer L. Redox regulation of cell functions by alpha-lipoate: biochemical and molecular aspects. Biofactors 1998 8(1-2):17-21.

Rybak LP, et al. Dose dependent protection by lipoic acid against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats: antioxidant defense system. Toxicol Sci 1999 47(2):195-202.

Sabbioni E, et al. Metal determinations in biological specimens of diseased and non-diseased hard metal workers. Sci Total Environ 1994 150(1-3):41-54.

Sakamoto M, et al. Widespread neuronal degeneration in rats following oral administration of methylmercury during the postnatal developing phase: a model of fetal-type minamata disease. Brain Res 1998 784(1-2):351-4.

Sandborgh-Englund G, et al. The absorption, blood levels, and excretion of mercury after a single dose of mercury vapor in humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998 150(1):146-53.

Satoh H. Occupational and environmental toxicology of mercury and its compounds. Ind Health 2000 38(2):153-64

Sigel H,et al. Stability and structure of binary and ternary complexes of alpha-lipoate and lipoate derivatives with Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ in solution. Arch Biochem Biophys 1978 187(1):208-14.

Slikkerveer A, et al. Comparison of enhanced elimination of bismuth in humans after treatment with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and D,L-2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid. Analyst 1998 123(1):91-2.

Smith D, et al. Efficacy of succimer chelation for reducing brain Pb levels in a rodent model. Environ Res 1998 78(2):168-76.

Sone N, et al. Effect of methyl mercury on phosphorylation, transport, and oxidation in mammalian mitochondria. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1977 82(3):859-68.

Southard J, et al. Mercurial toxicity and the perturbation of the mitochondrial control system. Fed Proc 1974 33(10):2147-53.

Southard JH, et al. Control of the energy coupling modes in mitochondria by mercurials. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1974 61(4):1310-6.

Southard JH, et al. Loss of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of mercury poisoned rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1973 52(3):921-7

Spoerke DG, et al. Infrequently used antidotes: indications and availability. Vet Hum Toxicol 1986 28(1):69-75

Srivastava RC, et al. Comparative evaluation of chelating agents on the mobilization of cadmium: a mechanistic approach. J Toxicol Environ Health 1996 47(2):173-82.

Stajich GV, et al. Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants. J Pediatr 2000 136:679-81.

Stara H, et al. Inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase by Hg++ ions. Physiol Bohemoslov 1978 27(3):193-8.

Steffensen IL, et al. Cytotoxicity and accumulation of Hg, Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in human peripheral T and B lymphocytes and monocytes in vitro. Gen Pharmacol 1994 25(8):1621-33.

Steuerwald U, et al. Maternal seafood diet, methylmercury exposure, and neonatal neurologic function. J Pediatr 2000 136(5):599-605.

Stewart PW, et al. Acute and longer term effects of meso-2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the behavior of lead-exposed and control mice. Physiol Behav 1996 59(4-5):849-55.

Stillman MJ, et al. Circular dichroism, kinetic and mass spectrometric studies of copper(I) and mercury(II) binding to metallothionein. J Inorg Biochem 2000 79(1-4):11-9.

Stohs SJ, et al. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med 1995 18(2):321-36.

Stubbs EG, et al. Adenosine deaminase activity decreased in autism. J Am Acad Child Psych 1976 21:71-4.

Sumathi R, et al. Relationship between glutathione and DL alpha-lipoic acid against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1996 49(2):39-48.

Sundberg J, et al. Kinetics of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in lactating and nonlactating mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998 151(2):319-29.

Sundberg J, et al. Protein binding of mercury in milk and plasma from mice and man--a comparison between methylmercury and inorganic mercury. Toxicology 1999 137(3):169-84.

Suzuki T, et al eds. Advances in Mercury Toxicity. Plenum Press, NY 1991.

Suzuki YJ, et al. Thioctic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are novel antioxidants which interact with reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Res Commun 1991 15(5):255-63.

Suzuki YJ, et al. Antioxidant activities of dihydrolipoic acid and its structural homologues. Free Radic Res Commun 1993 18(2):115-22.

Suzuki YJ, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation in human T cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992 189(3):1709-15.

Suzuki YJ, et al. Determination of structure-antioxidant activity relationships of dihydrolipoic acid. Methods Enzymol 1994 234:454-61.

Tanaka I. Arsenic metabolism. Studies of placental transfer of arsenic and the effects of antidotes and diet. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1976 72(6):673-87.

Tandon SK, et al. Chelation in metal intoxication. XXXVIII: Effect of structurally different chelating agents in treatment of nickel intoxication in rat. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1996 Jun 31(2):141-8.

Teichert J, et al. Investigations on the pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998 36(12):625-8.

Thiomersal as a vaccine preservative. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2000 75(2):12-6.

Tirosh O, et al.Neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid and its positively charged amide analogue. Free Radic Biol Med 1999 26(11-12):1418-26.

Tommaseo-Ponzetta M, et al. Trace elements in human scalp hair and soil in Irian Jaya. Biol Trace Elem Res 1998 62(3):199-212.

Totskii VN. Mechanisms and ways of regulation of lipoic acid penetration into biological structures. Biokhimiia 1976 41(6):1094-105.

Tripathi N, et al. Arsenic-induced changes in certain neurotransmitter levels and their recoveries following chelation in rat whole brain. Toxicol Lett 1997 92(3):201-8.

Tsutsumi S, et al. Effects of dimercaprol or thioctic acid on the distribution and excretion of Na374AsO3 injected subcutaneously in rats. J Toxicol Sci 1983 8(3):197-203.

Vahter M, et al. Speciation of mercury in the primate blood and brain following long-term exposure to methylmercury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1994 124(2):221-9.

Vallee BL, et al. Biochemical effects of mercury, cadmium, and lead. Annu Rev Biochem 1972 41(10):91-128.

van der Vliet A, et al. Plasma protein sulfhydryl oxidation: effect of low molecular weight thiols. Methods Enzymol 1995 251:448-55.

Veprintsev DB, et al. Pb2+ and Hg2+ binding to alpha-lactalbumin. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1996 39(6):1255-65.

Villegas J, et al. Accumulation of mercury in neurosecretory neurons of mice after long-term exposure to oral mercuric chloride. Neurosci Lett 1999 Aug 271(2):93-6.

Vimy MJ et al. Maternal fetal distribution of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings. Amer J Physiol 1990 258:R939-45.

Vriesman MF, et al. A method for measuring nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Scavenging properties of sulfur-containing compounds. Pharm World Sci 1997 19(6):283-6.

Walsh W, Usman A. Autism and Metal Metabolism. Nature (pending publication). Abstract available online.

Warfvinge K, et al. Systemic autoimmunity due to mercury vapor exposure in genetically susceptible mice: dose-response studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1995 132(2):299-309.

Warfvinge K. Mercury distribution in the neonatal and adult cerebellum after mercury vapor exposure of pregnant squirrel monkeys. Environ Res 2000 83(2):93-101.

Warren RP, et al. Immune abnormalities in patients with autism. J Aut Devel Dis 1986 16(2):189-97.

Warren RP, et al. Reduced natural killer cell activity in autism. J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 1987 26(3):333-5.

Watanabe C, et al. The effect of prenatal methylmercury exposure on the GSH level and lipid peroxidation in the fetal brain and placenta of mice. Tok J Exp Med 1999 187(2):121-6.

Watzl B, et al. Enhancement of ovalbumin-induced antibody production and mucosal mast cell response by mercury. Food Chem Toxicol 1999 37(6):627-37.

Weiss B, Landrigan PJ. The Developing Brain and the Environment: An Introduction. Environ Health Perspect 2000 108 Suppl 3:373-374.

Weiss J, et al. Human exposures to inorganic mercury. Public Health Rep 1999 114(5):400-1.

Wibowo AA, et al. Levels of metals in hair of young children as an indicator of environmental pollution. Environ Res 1986 40(2):346-56.

Wilhelm M, et al. Hair analysis in environmental medicine. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed 1996 198(6):485-501

Wilhelm M, et al. Uptake of aluminum, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc by human scalp hair and elution of the adsorbed metals. J Anal Toxicol 1989 13(1):17-21.

Woods JS, et al. Stimulation of porphyrinogen oxidation by mercuric ion. II. Promotion of oxidation from the interaction of mercuric ion, glutathione, and mitochondria-generated hydrogen peroxide. Mol Pharmacol 1990 38(2):261-6.

World Health Organization. Inorganic Mercury. Environmental Health Criteria. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. 1991 118.

Yang J, et al. Maternal-fetal transfer of metallic mercury via the placenta and milk. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1997 27(2):135-41.

Yoneda S, et al. Detoxification of mercury by selenium by binding of equimolar Hg-Se complex to a specific plasma protein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997 143(2):274-80.

Yoshida M, et al. Distribution and retention of mercury in metallothionen-null mice after exposure to mercury vapor. Toxicology 1999 139(1-2):129-36.

Zalups RK. Molecular interactions with mercury in the kidney. Pharmacol Rev 2000 52(1):113-43.

You may also return to these areas:

children with developmental disorders children with autistic spectrum disorders alternative therapies for autism children with autistic spectrum disorders alternative treatments for autism children with autistic spectrum disorders autism discussion forum children with autistic spectrum disorders resources for autistic children

[Color codes: blue = accessible page; light grey = page you are on; dark grey = in progress]

Website designed, created and hosted by The Healing Center On-Line © 2000 - 2003