Excerpted from: The PILOTS Database, An Electronic Index to the Traumatic Stress Literature, National Center for PTSD


Published Research on Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR) by Pamela V. Valentine:

1. ID: 23207.
Author: Valentine, Pamela Vest; Smith, Thomas Edward.
Title: Evaluating traumatic incident reduction therapy with female inmates: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
Source: Research on Social Work Practice (ISSN: 1049-7315), v. 11, no. 1, pp. 40-52 (January 2001).
Form of matl: Journal Article.
Affiliation: Department of Government and Public Service, School of Social and Behavioral Science, University of Alabama, Birmingham AL, USA.
Instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al). Clinical Anxiety Scale (Westhuis and Thyer). PTSD Symptom Scale (Foa et al). Generalized Expectancy of Success Scale (Fibel and Hale).
Year: 2001.
Language: English.
Availability: General
Descriptors: Females. Prison Inmates. Randomized Clinical Trial. Treatment Effectiveness. Traumatic Incident Reduction. PTSD. Stressors. Survivors. Adults. Americans. Social Casework.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: An experimental outcome study with trauma-related symptoms was conducted to examine the effectiveness of traumatic incident reduction (TIR). It is a brief, memory-based, therapeutic intervention and was used to treat symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and low expectancy of success (i.e., low self-efficacy). METHOD: A randomized pretest-posttest control group design with 123 female inmates (mean age 32 yrs) in a federal prison was used to evaluate the efficacy of the interventive procedure. The Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Clinical Anxiety Scale, and the Generalized Expectancy of Success Scale were administered at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up time intervals except for the PTSD Intrusion subscale at the posttest interval. RESULTS: A repeated-measures MANOVA showed significant differences between the treatment and comparison control conditions on all measures at posttest and 3-mo follow-up time intervals except for the PTSD Intrusion subscale at the posttest interval. CONCLUSION: The marked improvement of the treatment condition by comparison to those in the control condition supports the contention that TIR is an effective intervention with female inmates. The significant results on all measures at the follow-up time interval provide persuasive evidence of the stability of the interventive effects. The significance of this therapy model for use by practitioners with social work populations is highlighted. [Author Abstract]

2. ID: 20368.
Author: Valentine, Pamela Vest; Smith, Thomas Edward.
Title: A qualitative study of client perceptions of traumatic incident reduction (TIR): a brief trauma treatment.
Source: Crisis Intervention and Time-Limited Treatment (ISSN: 1064-5136), v. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-12 (1998).
Form of matl: Journal Article.
Affiliation: Social Work Program, University of Alabama, Birmingham AL, USA.
Year: 1998.
Language: English.
Availability: General
Descriptors: Adults. Americans. Social Casework. Stressors. Survivors. Traumatic Incident Reduction. Treatment Effectiveness.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore client evaluations of a brief trauma treatment, Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR). 16 clients from four states were interviewed on their experience of TIR using a qualitatively research protocol. The practitioners were experienced in TIR and its use in brief therapy. Six domains emerged from an analysis of the transcripts of the interviews: support, safety, structure, heightened physiological state, insight, and end point. The domains tend to support the principal claims made by proponents of TIR but also add another dimension that has not been previously discussed. Implications of this study for social work practice in crisis counseling, education, and research are discussed. [Author Abstract] KEY WORDS: Traumatic incident reduction; trauma; brief treatment; qualitative research; ethnography; empowerment

3. ID: 90240.
Author: Valentine, Pamela Vest.
Title: Traumatic incident reduction: brief treatment of trauma-related symptoms in incarcerated females [dissertation].
Source: Florida State University, 1997.
Form of matl: Doctoral Dissertation.
Note: Ph.D. dissertation.
Instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al). Clinical Anxiety Scale (Westhuis and Thyer). Generalized Expectancy of Success Scale (Fibel and Hale). Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale (Holen et al).
Year: 1997.
Language: English.
Availability: UMI, order no. AAD97-25020
Descriptors: Adults. Americans. Depressive Disorders. Females. Optimism. Pessimism. Prison Inmates. PTSD. Stressors. Survivors. Traumatic Incident Reduction. Treatment Effectiveness.
Abstract: An experimental outcome study of female inmates with trauma-related symptoms was conducted in a federal prison to examine the effectiveness of Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR), a brief, memory-based, therapeutic intervention, on symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and low expectancy of success. An experimental control group design was used to evaluate the efficacy of TIR in a prison setting. The Posttraumatic Symptom Scale, The Beck Depression Inventory, the Clinical Anxiety Scale, and the Generalized Expectancy of Success Scale were administered in pretest, posttest, and a three-month follow-up format. Results revealed an amelioration of PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms in the experimental condition only across the posttest and follow-up periods. Concomitantly, the experimental condition showed significant increases in generalized expectancy of success, while the control condition did not. [Author Abstract]

4. ID: 09541.
Author: Valentine, Pamela Vest.
Title: Traumatic incident reduction: a review of a new intervention.
Source: Journal of Family Psychotherapy (ISSN: 0897-5353), v. 6, no. 2, pp. 73-78 (1995).
Form of matl: Journal Article.
Affiliation: School of Social Work, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
Year: 1995.
Language: English.
Availability: General
Descriptors: Adults. Effects. Females. Incest. Stressors. Survivors. Traumatic Incident Reduction.
Abstract: Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR) is an intervention that was originated by Frank Gerbode in 1990. The technique is designed to reduce the troublesome symptoms that are often experienced by survivors of traumatic events. The purpose of this paper is to describe the intervention and give a case example. TIR presents clients with the opportunity to correct cognitive distortions. Clients retell their story, relive the event in a safe, controlled environment, reexamine the conclusions that were drawn from the experience(s), and come to a different understanding of the event. [Text, pp. 73, 74]